StMU Research Scholars

Featuring Scholarly Research, Writing, and Media at St. Mary's University
April 22, 2023

Maximizing Photosynthesis: A Visual Guide to Understanding C4 Plants

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Olivia Villalba

I was born and raised in Long Beach, California. I plan on graduating from St. Mary's University Spring of 2026 with a degree in Biology. With this degree, I wish to continue my education in the Medical field and become an Oral Surgeon. While attending St. Mary's, I am currently on the Women's Soccer Team. Being a part of this community has taught me leadership and communications skills with those around me. I am also a part of the Pre-Dental Society where we learn the ins and outs of Dental School. The leaders of the club offer great support and tips when it comes to applying to Dental School in the future.

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Recent Comments


  • Gaitan Martinez

    Great article, I haven’t talked about photosynthesis since I was a kid, but I love the refresher and new information! I didn’t know about the terms c4 and c3 plants, and wasn’t aware corn, sugarcane, switchgrass, and sorghum were c4 plants. It does make sense because drought resistance is apart of the c4 characteristics, and those plants are pretty hard, and i wonder if cacti is c4?

  • Sudura Zakir

    Nice job with your work. I liked the pictures and it’s better you mentioned the Calvin cycle and C4 cycle too. Talking about photosynthesis, adaptations, C4 plants, CO2 everything gives a better knowledge to the readers of your writing and also the examples you mentioned. I liked your detailed explanation of these in a graphic presentation with nice bright colors. In the future, I would prefer to read more from you. Good luck!!!

  • Yaniev Ibarra

    Nice work Olivia! I really like how you set up the information on you infographic. It really attracts the readers eyes to engage in the examples being shown, and to keep the topics separated. It is interesting the way Photosynthesis works for C4 Plants. Amazing display.

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