October 29, 2018
Although they didn’t create the first automobile in the world, Charles and Frank Duryea were the first to not only build one in the United States, but they also had the first automobile company in the United States. The Duryea Motor Wagon Company manufactured and sold automobiles. Based on these accomplishments alone, it can be argued that the Duryea brothers are the pioneers of the unofficial reform of transportation in America. The brothers were in the bicycle-making industry when their careers first started. At this point in time, the 1880s, the bicycle was one of the most popular means for getting around, in addition to the railroad of course. The elder brother, Charles Edgar Duryea, was known for being very inventive, and even created what he called a “sylph,” which was a bicycle that had the steering levers on the sides of the seat and a smaller wheel in front.1
Because of his creativity along with his niche for the bicycle industry, he naturally became interested in bigger and better things, such as the automobile. James Frank Duryea was also a very talented mechanic, so naturally the brothers worked very well together.
In 1886, at an Ohio state fair, Charles came across a gasoline engine. Being the inventor he was, Charles immediately got the idea to use that engine to power a carriage or wagon. It wasn’t until 1891, however, that Charles completed the design.2 Immediately after, Frank began turning that design into a reality. Keep in mind, this design was just that—a design, and most likely a prototype at that. While building the car, Frank found some flaws in the design, but he also came up with solutions to them while Charles was away. By 1893, the brothers had finished building and testing their automobile in Springfield, Massachusetts. The final product was just a buggy with an engine, but that was just the beginning.3 The brothers both claimed that they were the main contributors to the vehicle and some head-butting began.
By 1895, the brothers completed an improved version of the car. Many believe that Frank was the one who contributed the most for this automobile. On November 28 that same year in Chicago, Illinois, Jackson Park hosted America’s first-recorded automobile race. It was a 54-mile-long race that went from Chicago to Evanston, IL. There was a total of six cars participating in the snowy race. After roughly ten hours, the improved Duryea car came in first place with an average speed of 7.3 mph. In addition to bragging rights, the Duryea brothers also won the prize of $2,000.4
Some time later, near the end of 1896, the brothers established their own company and sold thirteen copies of the winning car. However, the company did not last very long. Surely the speculation about who contributed more was a factor, but there were also theories about Charles wanting to move the company to Detroit, but the brothers didn’t have the money to do so. However it happened, they split up and both went on to continue contributing to automobiles.
In 1904, Frank Duryea and Joshua Stevens established the Stevens-Duryea company manufacturing automobiles. Frank helped create the first six-cylinder car, and he also contributed to the limousine, which sold well into the 1920’s. Needless to say, Frank became very successful because of his career with automobiles. He was inducted into the Automotive Hall of Fame in 1996. Charles, on the other hand, was not so successful. After numerous failed attempts in the automobile industry after the split with his brother, he ended up settling as an editor for Automobile Trade Journal.5 Even though it seems that they weren’t as successful as Henry Ford or Karl Benz, the brothers are truly the forgotten pioneers for automobiles in America.
Charles Edgar Duryea
James Frank Duryea
I did not know that these guys were one of the first pioneers for automobiles. I did not even know that they even existed but this article does shed some light as to what they were able to accomplish. I guess you don’t really hear much about these guys because when people think of the first automobile everyone thinks of Henry Ford. It is a bit sad that the brothers weren’t successful together since they ended up splitting up but they were still able to accomplish a lot with what they did have.
This was a very interesting article to read. I personally, as many others, have always thought that Henry Ford was the first to design and build the car, so it was interesting to find out that was not the case. I find it unfortunate that they do not get the create for their idea and it mainly goes to Henry Ford. It is really neat to see how much has changed in the design of cars over time and all the technology that we now have and how much easier cars are to acquire and drive now.
The Duryea brothers lived in Peoria, Ill for a time. Not sure for how long, but there is a street named after them in Peoria Heights. Duryea Street.
It is so amazing to see how far our world has come from discovering a gasoline engine and turning it into a car, to today where we have cars that can drive itself. Just imagine how much creativity had to be within Charles and Frank Duryea’s minds to create the first car.