StMU Research Scholars

Featuring Scholarly Research, Writing, and Media at St. Mary’s University

November 2, 2017

America in the 1980s: Obsession and Romanticism over The Night Stalker

Winner of the Fall 2017 StMU History Media Award for

Best Article in the Category of “Crime”

Think back to the first horror movie you ever watched. Was it Halloween? Nightmare on Elm Street? Friday the 13th? Think about what all these movies have in common. If you guessed death, then you’re right. Most people will say they love a good horror film because of the rush of adrenaline; others will say they love the absurdity. Regardless of the reason, there is still a love for all things horror.

Handwritten letter from Ramirez to one of his many female admirers | Photo courtesy of Pinterest

But, where does this culture come from? While there are some people that love fictional horror, there are those that love real-life horror. These men and women idolize and fantasize about serial killers and murderers. They study all the crime reports, watch every documentary, and read every biography or narration of a killer’s life. Why is it that men and women like Richard Ramirez, self proclaimed satanist and vicious murderer, become celebrities through their killing? Serial killers sometimes gain groupies and copy-cat killers. Ramirez is one of many examples of distorted stardom but, his story gives us an image of America’s culture of death and our obsession with serial killers.

There are countless examples of killers being studied and filmed for the purpose of entertainment. Serial killers like Ted Bundy and Jeffrey Dahmer have had numerous documentaries appear, studying and depicting their lives. Books like The Stranger Beside Me and Zodiac have made millions in simple narration of the investigations or the killings themselves. Even Ramirez has had his name in Hollywood several times. He was depicted in one episode of the 2015 season of American Horror Story, and in 2016, Lou Diamond Phillips portrayed Ramirez in a dramatization of his life in A&E’s The Night Stalker.1 A Google search of his name will turn up thousands of articles and blogs detailing his life and killings. On YouTube, there are hundreds of videos from Ramirez’s trial along with subsequent interviews. Scrolling through the comment section, there are varying opinions on Ramirez. Some call him charming and philosophical, others say he is cocky and Charles Mansonesque.

Then, you will find men and women who find Ramirez attractive. This psychological phenomenon is known as hybristophilia, a type of paraphilia where a person is sexually attracted to and aroused by a person who has committed a vicious or gruesome crime.2 While Ramirez was still alive and in prison, hundreds of women would line up to try and visit him. At one point there were so many women in line, that more than half had to be turned away. Ramirez himself ended up marrying one of his “fans” while in prison. This woman was Doreen Lioy, a forty-one year old freelance editor. They were married on October 3, 1996 and remained husband and wife for twelve years before Ramirez died of B-cell lymphoma at the age of fifty-three.3

Richard Ramirez and his wife Doreen Lioy | Photo courtesy of Flickr

While she was the only woman to have married Ramirez, she was not the only woman “in love” with him. From the time of his arrest to his death, there were hundreds of “women in black” who wrote him letters in jail and went to every court hearing of his. Below is a news segment featuring two of Ramirez’s deluded fans.

To the average person, a serial killer is not a person, but a monster incapable of giving or receiving love. Very few would look into the eyes of a murderer and feel overcome with affection. But, in the 1980s and 1990s when Ramirez’s trial was all over the news, Americans couldn’t get enough of him. And so, the rise of serial killer notoriety comes to a peak, with an all-time high of serial killer reporting taking place and law enforcement spending more time and funding trying to understand serial killer psychology and motivation. Thus the culture of death was born.4

That is not to say that serial killers or murderers have not existed in history previously. They have, but there was not nearly as much attention given to them. The mid-twentieth century saw a worldwide increase in serial killers and mass murderers. This phenomenon has been documented all the way through the twentieth century, with a high concentration of killers and murders in the United States. Interestingly enough, there has been no evidence to show a slowing point to this killer influx. The rate of murder and killing has exponentially grown through the twentieth- and into twenty-first century. Because of this, there is an increase of study and focus being put onto these killers and atrocities. Many scholars and public health practitioners have devoted their time to researching and interviewing these killers in hope of understanding their motives for committing such heinous crimes.5

Though, with all this research, the primary focus is always put on the killer and their survivors, if any are left. In situations of a serial killer being found and arrested, public health officials will spend time talking about the crimes committed and their political and social ramifications. And, while they investigate and interview those who knew the killer, sometimes a motive is never found, leaving the community to deal with the loss of life in a shroud of mystery and anguish.6

Richard Ramirez as a child |Photo courtesy of The Post-Mortem Post

So, with all the time and resources devoted to understanding and predicting psychotic behavior, there has been no major breakthrough. Most of this difficulty comes from how “normal” these killers and murderers look. They could be friends, co-workers, or even family members—they blend in.7 Take for example The Stranger Beside Me, written by Anne Rule. She wrote about her experiences with Ted Bundy and described how she was completely shocked by the atrocious crimes he committed. But, before his arrest, he was a master of disguise and incredibly charming; there’s no way a man like that could be a cold-blooded killer. Right?

When speaking about Richard Ramirez, there was no surprise that he was troubled. As a child, he was diagnosed with epilepsy and grew up under the influence of his older cousin Mike. His older cousin was a Vietnam veteran who taught Ramirez to kill and smoke weed. As Ramirez grew older he began stealing to pay for a growing drug addiction; during this time, he also began to see himself as a child of Satan. As he grew, he became more troubled, working at a hotel and then being fired for trying to rape a woman in her room. He was sixteen at that time, though Ramirez was not found guilty because the Judge felt he had been lured into sex rather than the one to force it.8

After dropping out of high school, Ramirez, at the age of eighteen, moved to California and became a full time criminal. As his addiction to drugs grew, so did the violence of his crimes, resulting in a deadly cocktail of rage and addiction. All of this came to a climax in June of 1984, and after brutally murdering his first victim, seventy-nine year old Jennie Vincow, he went on a year-long killing spree.9 The wake of destruction he left after every break-in and murder left the nation in shock and terror. After every rape and murder he committed, a pentagram could be found either on the body of his victim, or somewhere in the crime scene, and this became Ramirez’s signature.10

He was finally apprehended on August 31, 1985 after his last victim was able to look out the window, and see the stolen car he was driving and a portion of the license plate. When Ramirez was found, he was in an East L.A. neighborhood, and police officers had to stop residents from beating him to death.11 But, during his trial there was no clear motive found. The disturbing conclusion was that Ramirez killed people and raped women because he liked it. And so, there comes a battle between sympathizing with Ramirez because of his traumatic and turbulent childhood, and condemning him as a “Satan-obsessed serial killer who enjoyed every murder and rape he committed.”12

The media had a large influence on this tug of war. From the first murder he committed to his very last day in court there was no shortage of stories. The more stories printed about “The Night Stalker,” the more the public wanted. News outlets focused on his surviving victims and the gruesome details of his crimes. News had begun to focus on the spectacle of things. Newspapers depicted his crimes as atrocities and disasters to the L.A. and San Francisco area, and every story of his made the front page. As Mary Ann Doane, a commentator on mass media, said “Catastrophe is at some level always about the body, about the encounter with death.”13

So, as a society we became obsessed with death. Even now, thirty-two years after Ramirez’s arrest and four years after his death, we still watch his documentaries, we still read the biographies, we still find him disturbingly fascinating. Richard Ramirez still has our attention.

  1. “Richard Ramirez Biography,”, last modified October 13, 2017,
  2. James Alan Fox, “Lovesick over Charles Manson. Really?,” USA Today, (2014): 08a, 6 October 2017.
  3. “Richard Ramirez Biography,”, last modified October 13, 2017,
  4. Judith S. Baughman, Victor Bondi, Richard Layman, Tandy McConnell, Vincent Tompkins, eds., “Serial Killers and Mass Murderers,” in American Decades Vol. 9, 1980-1989, (Detroit: Gale, 2001).
  5. D. L. Peck and R. B. Jenkot, “Serial and Mass Murderers,” in International Encyclopedia of Public Health Vol. 5, 690-691 (Oxford: Academic Press, 2008).
  6. D. L. Peck and R. B. Jenkot, “Serial and Mass Murderers,” in International Encyclopedia of Public Health Vol. 5, 690-691 (Oxford: Academic Press, 2008).
  7. Jarlath Killeen, “The Monster Club: Monstrosity, Catholicism and Revising the (1641) Rising,” in The Emergence of Irish Gothic Fiction: History, Origins, Theories 2014, ( Scotland: Edinburgh University Press, 2014), 5.
  8. J. Gordon Melton, “Ramirez, Richard (1960-),” in Encyclopedia of Occultism and Parapsychology, (Detroit: Gale, 2001), 1279.
  9. “Richard Ramirez Biography,”, last modified October 13, 2017,
  10. J. Gordon Melton, “Ramirez, Richard (1960-),” in Encyclopedia of Occultism and Parapsychology, (Detroit: Gale, 2001), 1279.
  11. “Richard Ramirez Biography,”, last modified October 13, 2017,
  12. Jarlath Killeen, “The Monster Club: Monstrosity, Catholicism and Revising the (1641) Rising,” in The Emergence of Irish Gothic Fiction: History, Origins, Theories 2014 ( Scotland: Edinburgh University Press, 2014), 5.
  13. Mark Seltzer, “Serial Killers (11): The Pathological Public Sphere,” Critical Inquiry 22, no. 1 (1995): 131.

Tags from the story

Richard Ramirez

Serial Killers

The Night Stalker

Recent Comments

Hannah Wilson

This article concerns me because society now a days find these type of crimes to be entertaining. You do not realize how disturbed and messed up this person really is by watching a movie about them. You can not see what families and community goes through because of that one person. I think that adding the link about his groupie fans was interesting.



2:09 pm

Robert Flores

The satantist in the video is absolutely disgusting. You can tell she like the idea of her companion murdering thirteen people by the way she smiled and laughed. We are still obsessed with serial killers because they are so different but we are beginning to take it way too far. Hollywood is coming out with big budget movies on ted buddy and charles manson which glamorizes their lifestyle.



2:09 pm

Destiny Leonard

This article was a very interesting read. I enjoyed how you explained and illustrated the ways in which the american people couldn’t get enough when it came to the night stalker. my only critique for the article is that I think it would have served the article a bit better had the author gone a bit more in depth in regards to the crimes he committed, although other than that this article was a good read!



2:09 pm

Isaac Rodriguez

Prior to reading the article, I had not heard of Richard Ramirez. A common trait I have noticed many serial killers have is a charming personality. The women in the YouTube video seem to be blinded by Ramirez’ words and were lead to believe that he wasn’t a bad person. I find it both odd and disturbing that some women fall in love with serial killers, and violent criminals. I had known that this was fairly common but did not know there was a term for it.



2:09 pm

Miguel Camarillo-Cohen

After reading this, I understand why this article has won an award. It was very well written and keeps you engaged throughout the article. While I’m familiar with society’s fascination with serial killers, I have never heard of the night stalker. Also, I did not know about hybristophilia, the attraction to serial killer; I find it bizarre that he had so many admirers for being a vicious murderer.



2:09 pm

Jonathan Perez

This article is interesting in that it focuses on the attention citizens pay to a murderer more than the murderer itself. Richard Ramirez’s story was huge, with what many described as him having a rock star attitude when he was in court and the many “fans” he had following him around. In a way the article describes the interest in the topic as a wanting to understand the mind of a killer which is what makes it unique rather than simply focusing on the killer itself. This article made for a great read, was well written, and overall well researched.



2:09 pm

Elias Garza

Richard Ramirez lived an inhumane lifestyle that should have been stopped before it did. I did not know hybristophilia was a thing and never would I have thought that people would find serial killers attractive in any way. I feel like those people need help just as much as the actual killer himself. Nonetheless, this was a great article that was able to flow swiftly.



2:09 pm

Lorenzo Rivera

Growing up in El Paso, Texas, I always heard when I misbehaved that, “If you don’t straighten up, the night stalker will get you.” I was petrified, and for good reason. Richard Ramirez was one of, if not the most horrid human being to have ever existed. It is unnerving to think about how one can use a charming personality to cover up a monster living inside, and preform despicable acts. Ramirez was truly and simply a monster, walking among the rest of society. His story is truly disturbing, and the fact that he was eventually brought to justice makes it that much easier to sleep at night.



2:09 pm

Karina Cardona Ruiz

I think this article was well written and thought provoking. This article caused myself and I’m sure others as well to think about why we found an interest in the first place to just read about this serial-killer. I feel that the direction of this article sets it apart from others similar to it in that instead of explicitly talking about his crimes it focused more one the general public’s reactions to his crimes and himself. I was aware that Ramirez and other serial killers had admirers, but did not know to what extent. I can’t grasp how or why people would romanticize killers, but I liked how you linked the video of his groupies because it shed some light as to how they think (I still don’t understand them though). I feel as though the main fascination for the public comes from us wanting to know their motives and what causes them to become the way they are.



2:09 pm

Ysenia Rodriguez

Despite the amount of films, news articles, time and research given in pursuit of classifying psychotic behavior, it’s a real shame that there has been no major development in the explanation of these murderers and serial killers- not even a hint of telling if one will take a troubling background and grow strong from it, or choose a path such as the one Richard Ramirez took instead. However, I don’t find that nearly as mystifying as the idea of hybristophilia stricken men and women who find anything remotely romantic or lovely about this man who tortured, raped and murdered fourteen women.



2:09 pm

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