StMU Research Scholars

Featuring Scholarly Research, Writing, and Media at St. Mary’s University

April 17, 2017

Diego Rivera the Muralist: A Different Working Mexican

Winner of the Spring 2017 StMU History Media Awards for

Best Article in the Category of “Culture”

When entering a Mexican restaurant today, one takes notice of the different aromas, both sweet and savory; one notices the patrons often speaking their language of Spanish; one hears the vibrant tunes of a jukebox; however, one might ask whether the art hanging on the walls of the restaurant isn’t also worthy of the patrons’ attention? One may have seen the famous work of art depicting a woman of colored skin, brown as sugar, contrasting with the white of beautiful calla lilies; or, if not, one might at least be familiar with another work by that same painter.1 The name of this artist, who is known far beyond the Mexican restaurants that hang his famous paintings and murals, is Diego Rivera.

Desnudo Con Alcatraces (1944) | Courtesy of

Born in Guanajuato, Mexico, on December 8, 1886, Rivera grew up always seeming to have a hand for creating art. As a child, he had his own studio to work in and later he was granted a scholarship that allowed him to take his talent to Europe, especially to France, where he spent ten years expanding and perfecting his techniques. He is best known for his many influential murals and paintings that illustrate the struggles and lifestyles of the Mexican working class. Among his most famous murals is The History of Mexico from the Conquest to 1930, housed in the National Palace in Mexico City; The Making of a Fresco in San Francisco; and Detroit Industry, located in the city that was home to the American industrial worker in the early twentieth century.2

The History of Mexico (1935) | Courtesy of

In the autumn of 1922, Rivera joined the Mexican Communist Party. This organization positively impacted the Mexican community through supporting miners’, factory workers’, and farmers’ rights. With the support of those miners, factory workers, and farmers, Rivera formed the Union of Technical Workers, Painters, and Sculptors. Through the Union, Rivera opened free art schools all over Mexico, through which he was able to spark the Mexican mural movement, enabling his protégés to showcase their art, inspired by Rivera’s own murals. Rivera became well-known in Mexico, and even people from different countries came to his Union to participate.3

History of Mexico (1935) | Courtesy of

In 1929, Rivera began working on a series of frescoes titled History of Mexico from the Conquest to 1930. The art piece took twenty years to complete because of minor adjustments and additions, and he also worked on other pieces in the interim. However, during this time of his busiest artistic activity, he was expelled from the Mexican Communist Party for being “too busy” painting. Despite his expulsion, he continued to favor the working class and always believed he was one of them.4 On February 9, 1934, Nelson Rockefeller was said to have sent workers to destroy a mural located in the Rockefeller Center in New York City, a mural Rivera had spent many weeks painting with smooth precision. The painting was destroyed because of a portrait of Vladimir Lenin painted in the mural, which was not originally in the sketch sent for Rockefeller’s approval. This left Rivera in a state of depression and exhaustion after realizing his hard work was put to waste, without even being given a chance to be named.

History of Mexico (1935) | Courtesy of WideWalls

Despite the controversies Rivera encountered throughout his career he was still a magnificent painter and influenced much of Mexico’s national art.5 In 1947, another one of Rivera’s murals heated his audience, Dream of a Sunday Afternoon in the Alameda. It was located in the Hotel del Prado across the street from Alameda and the painting covered the history of the park and its peoples (from Rivera’s perspective) all the way from the years of the Spanish Inquisition to the Mexican Revolution. The reason it sparked criticism and caused demonstrators to slash the fresco was because the words “God does not exist” were written in the mural. Rivera, of course, repaired the damages made. In 1956, a year before his death, he announced “I am a Catholic,” and changed the wording on the fresco.6 It was among one of the last great murals he painted. But despite the controversies that Rivera encountered throughout his career, he was still a magnificent painter and influenced much of Mexico’s national art.7

Dream of a Sunday Afternoon in the Alameda (1946-1947) | Courtesy of

In addition to being a hard worker and a talented painter, Rivera was also great with the ladies. While in Paris he first became engaged to a Russian artist named Angelina Beloff, with whom he had a son, Diego Jr., who unfortunately died at fourteen months from the influenza epidemic of 1919-1920.8 In 1921, he returned to Mexico, where he met a fine beauty from Guadalajara named Lupe Marin. Just a short year later they were married, leaving Angelina in Paris still believing that they were engaged. In the years that followed, Marin bore Diego two daughters, Guadalupe and Ruth.9 However, his infidelity caused their marriage to fall apart, with Marin left raising their daughters on her own. By 1929, Rivera had already remarried, but this time to the famous Frida Kahlo.10

The Making of a Fresco, (1931) | Courtesy of Chicano Art Movement

Rivera was working on a painting in the National Palace in Mexico City when Frida approached him; she requested that he get down from the scaffold and give his honest opinion on her own work. After looking at her work, he called it “an unusual energy of expression,” calling her an authentic artist. She invited him to see more of her work at her home in Coyoacán. From there, a friendship blossomed, and soon they fell in love.11 Their marriage was not like any ordinary marriage; it was an emotional roller coaster of a relationship that was well depicted in both of their works, especially in Kahlo’s. She accompanied him everywhere: San Francisco, New York, Detroit, and many other places. They managed for many years, up until Rivera became involved with Frida’s younger sister. They then divorced in 1940.

Diego Rivera and Frida Kahlo in their home in Mexico | Courtesy of Pinterest

During this time, Leon Trotsky (Soviet politician) was a target for many agents of Joseph Stalin and was found in his home with a pickaxe jabbed in his head.12 Previously, Rivera and Frida’s home in Coyoacán served as an asylum for Trotsky and his wife as a refuge from these assassins of Stalin’s. While in their home  Casa Azul,  Kahlo and Trotsky had an amorous affair, and a subsequent quarrel between him and Rivera.13 Rivera cut off any interaction with Trotsky and fled to San Francisco, where he started working on a mural. The police questioned Kahlo about Trotsky’s death, and she later followed Rivera to San Francisco. They remarried that same year, and despite his infidelities, they continued to be passionately in love. However, in 1954, after fourteen more mercurial years of marriage, Kahlo died, and Rivera mourned her death for a year before marrying his third wife, Emma Hurtado. Diego Rivera had a way with women, and his big belly and smelly self did not get in the way of his passion for both art and women.

Leon Trosky, a communist and Marxist revolutionary (left), Diego Rivera (center), and Andre Breton member of the French communist party (right), 1931 | Courtesy of WordPress

Rivera was heavily involved in politics at an early stage of his life and continued to be up until his death. In 1955, he was diagnosed with cancer and traveled all the way from Mexico to Moscow to get treatment. Two years later, on November 24th, he passed away in his home in San Angel, Mexico City, Mexico. He wanted his ashes to be spread alongside those of Frida Kahlo in a templo he built; instead, he was buried. Rivera was head of the Anti-Imperialist League and held memberships in the National Peasant League and the Workers’ and Peasants’ Bloc. Also, he rededicated himself to the Mexican Communist Party in 1926 and was a delegate to the Moscow Peasant Congress in 1936.14 Rivera in many ways resembled the indigenous people of the working class illustrated in his works of art. Not only did they share the same native country, but they too were concerned for the political movement and the aftermath of the Mexican Revolution, and they too had the passion and drive to continue working hard, in both sickness and in health.

  1. Diego Rivera, “Desnudo con Alcatraces,” painting in oil, 1944, original in Private Collection.
  2.  Susan Goldman Rubin, Diego Rivera: An Artist for the People (New York: Abrams Books for Young Readers, 2013), 6.
  3.  Susan Goldman Rubin, Diego Rivera: An Artist for the People (New York: Abrams Books for Young Readers, 2013), 16.
  4.  Susan Goldman Rubin, Diego Rivera: An Artist for the People (New York: Abrams Books for Young Readers, 2013), 22.
  5.  Susan Goldman Rubin, Diego Rivera: An Artist for the People (New York: Abrams Books for Young Readers, 2013), 26.
  6. William Stockton, “Rivera Mural in Mexico Awaits it New Shelter,” New York Times, January 4, 1987. Accessed April 17, 2017.
  7.  Susan Goldman Rubin, Diego Rivera: An Artist for the People (New York: Abrams Books for Young Readers, 2013), 26.
  8.  Susan Goldman Rubin, Diego Rivera: An Artist for the People (New York: Abrams Books for Young Readers, 2013), 12-13.
  9.  Susan Goldman Rubin, Diego Rivera: An Artist for the People (New York: Abrams Books for Young Readers, 2013), 16-18.
  10. Frida Kahlo was an iconic revolutionary Mexican artist widely recognized for her disturbing personal self-portraits of the female body and known for her Tehuana style. See Encyclopedia of Activism and Social Justice, 2007, s.v. “Kahlo, Frida (1907–1954),” by Gary L. Anderson and Kathryn G. Herr.
  11.  Susan Goldman Rubin, Diego Rivera: An Artist for the People (New York: Abrams Books for Young Readers, 2013), 18-21.
  12. Encyclopedia of Activism and Social Justice, 2007, s.v. “Trotsky, Leon (1879–1940),” by Gary L. Anderson and Kathryn G. Herr.
  13. Encyclopedia of Sex and Gender, 2007, s.v. “Kahlo, Frida (1907–1954),” by Fedwa Malti-Douglas.
  14. Encyclopedia of Activism and Social Justice, 2007, s.v. “Rivera, Diego (1886–1957),” by Gary L. Anderson and Kathryn G. Herr.

Tags from the story

Diego Rivera

Mexican artists

Recent Comments

Alyssa Childs

Diego Rivera was a very talented artist. He was one of the lucky ones to get a scholarship to further his skills in art. Mexicans then and now are not treated and represented respectively, and I am glad to have learned that Rivera was able to present his people in a positive light. I did find it completely ridiculous that the Mexican Communist Party would kick him out just because he was too busy, he was too busy making them history. It is always sad to read about the struggles one goes through, but the struggles are what build us up and that’s what Rivera did.



8:03 pm

Didier Cadena

I am not too familiar with the life of Diego Rivera, so this article did help me try to understand who he was. I only know about him through his masterpieces, so this was a fresh new perspective for me to behold. I had no idea that he was a communist and that the Mexican communist party kicked him out because he was too busy doing other things. The article did a great job of putting the information in a way that is both informative and interesting enough to read.



8:03 pm

Tyler Thompson

Diego Rivera had down many wonderful things with his art. It was ashamed that Rockefeller destroyed one of his most beautiful pieces. Diego Rivera’s paintings did a lot in terms of politics, and he stood for those who were less fortunate than him. It’s also sad that due to his infidelity habits, he was not able to have a steady family as well, but it was a very good article.



8:03 pm

Maria Mancha

I personally feel like Diego Rivera didnt get that much credit for his amazing art work, it was kind of over shadowed by the bad type of husband he was to the famous artist Frida. I knew he was an artist but I never really knew his background. To hear his struggles, like working so hard on a painting for about 20 years for someone just to destroy it in the matter of minutes. By looking at him I wouldve never guessed he was able to get a lot of women, so that was some interesting information. The article was very interesting and I learned so many new things about Diego that I wouldve never guessed.



8:03 pm

Fumei Pinger

I really enjoyed the graphics the author included, it’s plain to see that Deigo Riveria’s murals are magnificent. The details, precision and time truly come to life, I’d like to see one of these pieces in person. Although the graphics are great in this article I’m sure they don’t do justice to the real deal. His reputation as a ladies man really carries through this story, giving the audience a feel for his personality. I had no idea he was so heavily involved in politics, and so influential through his art.



8:03 pm

Arianna Kennet

After reading this article I looked up Diego Rivera just to see some of his works as I am a fan of art, and am always interested in seeing different works of different people. I would never have thought that this man would be able to get so many women, but never judge a book by its cover I guess. Interesting to read about his life and background, definitely gave me more insight on someone I did not really know.



8:03 pm

Elias Garza

I always wished I was good at painting, drawing, or any type of art. Diego Rivera was destined to be successful in the art field. He had his own studio as a kid and spent much time in there. That made it easy for him to carry on this talent. I wonder how his family felt knowing he was going so far because of his scholarship.



8:03 pm

Mariana Valadez

Despite Diego River’s fame of being a bad husband to Frida Kahlo, it does not change that he was an amazing artist. I was completely unaware of his love life before Frida and its very interesting to know how many women he had in his life. I also had no idea his involvement in politics. This article gave me insight



8:03 pm

Tessa Bodukoglu

when I was in high school, I was very big into art. I loved looking at works of art for inspiration and seeing how they would somehow tie into my art pieces. Diego Rivera and Frida Kahlo were two individuals that I became very fond of. I loved the way that they expressed their art and how Diego would tie in real life situations into his murals. I didn’t personally like him as an individual, but his art was very inspiring for me and helped me become the artist I am today.



8:03 pm

Luisa Ortiz

I knew Diego loved women, but I had no idea he re-married many many times! I absolutely love the pictures in this article, it took me to memory lane to my childhood. Many of my school books had the murals of Diego Rivera in the cover page and of course, the iconic “Desnudo con Alcatraces” replica is at grandma’s house! Good job on this article!



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