StMU Research Scholars

The Fall of the Russian Imperial Family & Its Lost Princess Anastasia

The youngest daughter of Alexandra and Nicholas II, the last tsar of Russia, was born in 1901 near St. Petersburg, Russia. Anastasia Nikolaevna Romanov, along with her three older sisters and one younger brother, were heirs to the throne that they believed would continue to rule Russia indefinitely.1 However, the Romanov dynasty–after ruling from 1547 to 1919–came to a gruesome and abrupt end when the family was executed during the Russian Revolution by the Bolsheviks. But because there was no proof of Anastasia’s death among the graves, the public has ever since been fascinated by her possible mysterious disappearance. She has since become the story line for books, movies, and even plays. Over time, the lost Princess of Russia has become a significant cultural figure in Russian history.

The Romanov family. Anastasia is the young girl sitting to the far left, next to her father Nicholas II | Courtesy of Beautifulrus

This most fabled of the Romanovs was named Anastasia, meaning “the breaker of chains,” because Nicholas II had pardoned a group of students that had rebelled in St. Petersburg the year she was born. The Tsar was disappointed that his wife had birthed yet another daughter and not yet a son to take the throne. When Alexandra did finally give birth an heir, he was born with an extreme case of hemophilia and was not expected to live beyond his childhood. It was said that the pressure of birthing an heir affected the Tsarina during her pregnancies, and for this reason the children suffered from illnesses; for Anastasia’s part, sh had a foot disorder and back weakness.2 Despite her poor health, Anastasia was a lively and charismatic child, who was nicknamed the “Imp” and “Sunshine” since she would spend her days playing with her siblings or pulling pranks on her family or servants.3 She climbed trees, played with animals, and like any other child, would cause chaos. Except she was not like any other child; she was a Romanov. Anastasia was part of the longest Russian dynasty to ever rule; at the end of the day, she was royalty.

The young princess Anastasia would spend her time reading, studying, running around, and practicing her stitching | Courtesy of Russiapedia.

Despite their riches and huge palaces, the Tsar and Tsarina did not spoil their children or give way to an affluent lifestyle. The princess and prince shared rooms and had a strict, fixed schedule that included cold showers, breakfast, tutoring (in languages, grammar, geography, Bible studies) and then dinner. Although the young princess was described as being outgoing, social, and sometimes even a trouble maker, she never spent time with outsiders because her interactions were limited to the people who lived with her.4 Forbidden from leaving the grounds, Anastasia and her siblings lived almost as prisoners in their wealthy, quiet, and stern homes. There was, however, one person that Anastasia viewed as a close and intimate friend: Gregory Rasputin.

The picture shows Rasputin and the prince Alexei spending time together | Courtesy of Pinterest

After using some of his alleged healing powers on the sickly prince Alexei, the Romanov family took in this strange, holy man from Siberia. Rasputin quickly gained the trust of the Romanov family and would use his influence to attack enemies in the government and move up the social ladder. The family’s close relationship with Rasputin was criticized strongly by many, whispering that he had seduced the Tsarina Alexandra and the young princesses, including Anastasia.5.

The mystic man Gregory Rasputin | Courtesy of Russiapedia

The family’s close bond with this mystic man discredited the authority of the Tsar and increased the public’s resentment towards Nicolas II, who had proven his lack of leadership when Russia was defeated in the war with Japan in 1905. After this, the people of Russia demanded civil liberties and an end to the war, but the authorities responded by opening fire on these peaceful protests, a day known as Bloody Sunday.6 In an attempt to reconcile with the public, the tsar granted the people a house of parliament, named the Duma, and a constitution, but he nullified and ignored both, and so tensions escalated. Then in 1914, when World War I broke out, the tsar left Empress Alexandra and her right man, Rasputin, in charge of the government while he commanded the Russian army on the battlefield. This decision allowed Rasputin to abuse his authority and, in 1916, Russian generals and other  relations to the royal family had had enough and assassinated him. World War I resulted in a high number of Russian casualties, a blow to the economy, and social instability that resulted from a lack of resources such as food. In these times of chaos, the people blamed the royal family for involving Russia in this bloodbath; so they, along with the Tsar’s generals, demanded that the Romanov’s give up the throne and hand power over to a provisional government, the first Revolution of 1917.7

Lenin  addresses soldiers of the new Soviet Army in Red Square in Moscow on May 25, 1919 | Courtesy of Daily Mail

This unstable, temporary government lasted only until it was overthrown by Vladimir Lenin and the Bolsheviks, the second Revolution of 1917. The Bolsheviks moved to create soviet rule after the Russian Revolution. It was Lenin who decided to place the Romanov family under house arrest in Ekaterinburg in the Ural Mountains. The family was heavily guarded, given limited portions, and treated like traitors to the Soviets. Despite the unfortunate conditions that the Romanov’s faced, Anastasia, who was by this time seventeen years old, refused to let the Russian Revolution and the Bolsheviks break her spirit. She would sing, joke, and pull pranks while her father would read books, all in an attempt to lighten the somber mood. While they were under house arrest, the family sewed jewelry into their clothing in the event that they could escape the house and flee. However, before Anastasia and her family could even attempt their escape, Lenin ordered the execution of the Romanovs in 1918.8.

The Romanovs were held as prisoners in this house in Ekaterinburg by the Ural Mountains | Courtesy of Teaattrianon

The guards and a squad of Bolsheviks led the family into the cellar in the house of Ekaterinburg, where after being read their death sentence, were brutally shot. The men hesitated shooting Anastasia and her siblings because they were children, so most of the gunfire was directed at Nicolas II and Alexandra. However, the orders were to kill, and after the first round, most of the family was still alive due to the bulletproof undergarments they had sowed with their jewelry. Sadly, no type of jewel could have saved the family from being cruelly stabbed to death in a cold, dark cellar. No member of the Romanov family survived that night. The myth that Anastasia and her brother had survived the executions was created when word spread that two members of the family woke up as their bodies were carried out of the cellar. Unfortunately, they didn’t escape, instead they were stabbed to death, driven out into the forest, burned, and their ashes scattered.9

The most famous impersonator of Anastasia, Anna Anderson was not proven wrong until after her death | Picture by Express

The Bolsheviks tried to conceal the brutal death of the Romanovs to avoid any type of opposition to their new rule. But soon after, the world learned about the horrid events that occurred in Ekateringburg.10 It was the tragic end of the royal family and the innocence of the young Princess Anastasia that inspired the people of Russia to hope that she was still alive. Rumors that Anastasia had survived spread like wildfire in Russia, Germany, and all over the world, including to the United States. The people’s undying hope and the lack of evidence of Anastasia’s death, gave way to impersonators who claimed they were the rightful Anastasia and deserved her inheritance and fame. These false claims were for the most part brushed aside, until Anna Anderson woke up in a hospital in Berlin after a suicide attempt and claimed to be part of the Romanov family.11 From the 1920’s and until her death in 1984, this Polish woman tried to convince the world that she was indeed Anastasia. Some distant relatives of the Romanovs believed her, although others, like a close aunt, Olga Romanov, did not and called her a stranger. In 1970 Dr. Alexander Avdonin discovered the grave that contained five of the seven members of the Romanov family, but kept it a secret until the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. The DNA was examined for years, but it was not until 2007 that Anastasia’s remains were found and her death was then confirmed to have happened on the day of the execution.12

In 1997, Walt Disney released the film Anastasia. In this story, the lost princess falls in love and finds her way back home | Courtesy of Beautifulrus

The tragic and heart breaking story of Princess Anastasia and the fallen Romanov family was romanticized into books, plays, and movies. For example, the popular film “Anastasia” was produced in the 50’s,  the musical “Anya” was a success on Broadway in the 1960’s, and even in 1997, Walt Disney released an animated film about Anastasia–who fights against a demonic Rasputin in order to recover her identity.13 Although entertaining, these movies and plays do not convey the true, gruesome, and unfair story of Anastasia. Instead, they do a good job of creating a fantasy that guarantees a happy ending to the myth. Sometimes it is easier to hope for happy endings and fairy tales than to open our eyes to the harsh reality of life, as was the case with the life of Princess Anastasia.

To this day, there are those who doubt the authenticity of the DNA results and believe that Anastasia did manage to escape. The Russian Orthodox church has proposed to grant Anastasia sainthood in order to honor the Romanov family and the great Tsars that once ruled Russia, but others believe that they should remain buried in the past.14 Whatever the case may be, there is no denying that Anastasia is a symbol of the power behind royal families, an icon of Russian history, a romantic fairy tale, and a tragic ending that will continue to live on.

  1.  Encyclopedia of World Biography, 2004, s.v. “Anastasia Nicholaievna Romanov.”
  2. Nancy Bilyeau, “Will the Real Anastasia Romanov Please Stand Up?” Town & Country, April 25, 2017.
  3. Kyle Smith, Craig Mellow, Ron Arias, and Elizabeth Leonard, “Tragic Child,” People 49, No. 1, (January 12, 1998), 67.
  4. Kyle Smith, Craig Mellow, Ron Arias, and Elizabeth Leonard, “Tragic Child,” People 49, No. 1, (January 12, 1998), 67.
  5. John B. Saul, “In ‘Rasputin,’ Author Examines the Truth behind the Downfall of the Romanovs,” The Seattle Times, November 5, 2016
  6. Bryan Brown, “The Last Czar Nicholas II: The Heir of Russia’s Once Powerful Romanov Dynasty Fell Victim to Bad Decisions, Bad Luck, and the Tide of History,” Junior Scholastic 14, no. 1 (2005): 14.
  7. Bryan Brown, “The Last Czar Nicholas II: The Heir of Russia’s Once Powerful Romanov Dynasty Fell Victim to Bad Decisions, Bad Luck, and the Tide of History,” Junior Scholastic 14, no. 1 (2005): 14.
  8. Yuri Zarakhovich, “Playing Politics with the Romanovs,” Time, August 26, 2007
  9. Simon Sebag Montefiore, “Goodnight, Sweet Romanov,” Town & Country 170, no. 5430 (November 2016), 162.
  10. Yuri Zarakhovich, “Playing Politics with the Romanovs.” Time, August 26, 2007.
  11. Sarah Appleton, “Found?” New Moon Girls 16, no. 4 (April 3, 2009): 20.
  12. Michael D. Coble and Odile M. Loreille, “Mystery Solved: The Identification of the Two Missing Romanov Children Using DNA Analysis,” PLoS ONE 4, no. 3 (March 2009): 1–9.
  13. Nancy Bilyeau, “Will the Real Anastasia Romanov Please Stand Up?” Town & Country, April 25, 2017.
  14. Kyle Smith, Craig Mellow, Ron Arias, and Elizabeth Leonard, “Tragic Child,” People 49, No. 1, (January 12, 1998), 67.

56 Responses

  1. Hearing the name of Anastasia always brings up the cartoon to mind. I never knew it was in fact someone real. I though it all was just a simple ‘fairy tale’. It was impacting after reading this article that this story I have seen ever since I was a child is based on a true story. It was interesting to rad how the family was put into house arrest. What impacted me was that later on they got killed. Amazing article really enjoyed reading it.

  2. I never watched Anastasia or ever heard of her so reading this article was interesting. Its horrible that they lived like prisoners and that her execution came with no real justification. Anastasia was so string for not letting the Russian Revolution and the Bolsheviks bring her down. She seems like a very happy and joyful women and its sad that she didn’t get to live her life to the fullest.

  3. The story of Anastasia and the Romanovs is one of my all time favorites!!! I have read countless books and watched documentaries and movies on them. What struck me was Rasputin and his relationship with the family. I have heard different things about him so I am intrigued. What I read was that he was the main confidante to Alexandra and the Czar did not like him as well as Rasputin being the main cause of their downfall. But what I read is most likely wrong. I also never knew that Anastasia had a foot disorder. Overall, I love your article.

  4. That is sad that they lived like prisoners. They were just kids. It was nice to know that Anastasia, refused to let the Russian Revolution and the Bolsheviks break her spirit. I love how you included the bit about her singing and joking in order to cheer everyone up. What a tragedy that no one had survived and they were killed so brutally. It sad to hear the truth of the real story of Anastasia, but you did a great job explaining it.

  5. I watched Anastasia so often as a child and, prior to reading this article, had no idea that she was based on a real, non-fictional person. It’s tragic how unjustly her execution was, especially at such a young age. However, I love how magical and wholesome Disney took and made her “story” – knowing that she died as a young girl, I’d like to think it’s what she would’ve wanted.

  6. The murder of the last star of Russia and his family in Petersburg Russia is gruesome to say the least. However I love and thoroughly enjoy the way the author of this article details the story and included some very unknown facts for example the myths about the possible survival of Anastasia. Additionally I took notice of the fact that the author contrasts history with myths and fables about the survival of Anastasia. I also appreciated why a nation where individuals might fantasize about the return of the princess. Finally, as gruesome as the story may seem I feel that this story is indicative of politics of Russia during that period.

  7. I’ve only ever watched the movie with my sister but I never really knew about the story behind it unlike with Snow White and other princess movies that I watched with my family growing up! So you could imagine my curiosity when I found this article, and I’m glad I was able to read such an interesting article! Especially all of the drama and tension that was behind the scenes of this movies history.

  8. Reading this article informed me of many things I had no idea occurred. I found it crazy to read that a royal family would be placed under house arrest and later on killed. The people and the general did not have to blame Romanov’s actions onto his family but those were different times so therefore they have different rules to follow by. Princess Anastasia seemed like a bundle of joy to be around and it seems that many people saw that as well.

  9. I had no idea that the myths had inspired movies, plays, novels etc. I always thought it was just pure fiction, without a doubt the story is sad and frustrating, I do not understand why kids innocent people must die like this. This article is very well written, the author manages to write tell other stories within the story and not losing us, I think this is an incredible story, great job on the pictures too!

  10. It’s crazy that I’ve seen and owned the film but never truly knew the background of the story, to me it was just surrounding ‘fairy tales’. So after reading this, I was shocked to discover this once innocent Disney film was filled with drama. I definitely have a good grasp on her disappearance and overall history of the royal family. This article was well written and very informative. I loved reading it!

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