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November 15, 2018

The Chilean 33: Escaping the Depths

Can you imagine being trapped in a mine for more than two months, not knowing whether you would get rescued, or even if someone was searching for you? Well, in 2010, thirty-three miners were trapped after a collapse in the San Jose Mine in northern Chile. This terrifying accident led to one of the most famous rescues in history, involving a collaboration of people from around the globe.

The fateful collapse occurred on Thursday, August 5, 2010. This day immediately became part of Chilean history, and it led to one of the most emotional stories in recent times. A few hours after the mine collapsed, both the government and the media let the world know about the tragedy. At that time, they didn’t know the cause of the accident, and they certainly didn’t know whether there were any survivors. However, the search and rescue efforts began immediately.1

Over the next few days, rescuers tried to analyze the situation to the best of their abilities and started searching for survivors. Things didn’t look good, and things got even worse when there was a second collapse in the ventilation duct, which was being evaluated as a possible escape route for any survivors. The next few days were used by the rescuers to drill exploratory holes; these holes were used to send listening probes down the mine to search for any signs of life. And, after two weeks of unsuccessful attempts, they finally found what they were searching for: survivors.2

On Sunday, August 22, it was confirmed by the government of Chile that the thirty-three miners were alive and in one of the mine’s shelters. How did they find out that they were alive? The miners reported their survival using knocks and a small piece of paper that said: “All 33 of us are fine in the shelter.”3 This single sentence gave the nation and the entire world hope, since it confirmed something that very few thought to be possible. Two days later, a hole was drilled and food and water was sent to the brave survivors. At this moment, rescuers started focusing on the true challenge of this story: getting the miners out safely.4 

Workers in the rescue zone | By Hugo Infante/Government of Chile | Courtesy of Wikimedia Commons
As it is to be expected, mining is a high-risk industry. However, it is a big economic resource for many countries, including Chile. This country is very active in mining and exporting metals. When it comes to copper, it is the world’s largest producer and exporter.5 The San Jose Mine, where the collapse occurred, is one of the many copper-gold mines in the country. Business Insider recently reported that Chile “has been the world’s top copper producer now for over 30 years, and today close to 50% of the country’s exports come from copper-related products.”6 This dominance over the market is due to Chile’s obvious natural resources, but also thanks to advanced mining technology.

Mining in Chile started to produce considerably in the 1990s. It was around that time that it lead to one of the fastest growing economies in the world. Nowadays, it continues its dominance and keeps evolving. Codelco, Chile’s National Copper Corporation, is the biggest copper-producing company in the world.7 And, despite the successful outcomes in the past decades, mining companies (like Codelco) continue to explore other mining opportunities in Chile. Another important factor that has contributed to this industry’s success is that the mining laws created by the government of Chile are investment friendly, which means that foreign investment is facilitated. In their efforts to continue to build their international relationships, Chile also has been pushing to engage economically with the Asia-Pacific region.8

Finding the thirty-three miners alive and well was a miracle. But it seemed that they would need a second miracle in order to get out. And this miracle was achieved thanks to people from around the world collaborating and sharing resources to make sure that the miners were rescued, and that they stayed healthy while they were still trapped. It is important to remember that the miners had to stay down there a long time, and they had almost no food and water until they were found. That is why two teams were created: one in charge of taking care of the miners, and one in charge of drilling the rescue shaft that would get them out. In order to take care of the miners, many organizations worked together to maintain their health. A support group from the Navy of Chile was asked to participate, since the conditions the miners were in were very similar to being trapped inside a submarine. They were asked to create a routine to help them with the seclusion and they continued to send them medical supplies and instructions. Their goal was to take care of their physical and mental state.9

Another great example of how the world united to save the miners is NASA’s contribution. NASA built a team that gave recommendations on medical care, nutrition, and psychological support. They even gave a possible design for a vehicle that could be used for the rescue operation. NASA’s nutritionists and doctors traveled to Chile and recommended things like vitamin supplements, sleep schedules, and exercise for the miners. They also sent psychologists that recommended little access to the media and constant communication with the families. Finally, NASA engineers also helped with the capsule that eventually got the miners out.10

Workers preparing the platform for the crane | By Hugo Infante/Government of Chile | Courtesy of Wikimedia Commons

After making sure that the miners were healthy enough to survive inside the mine for a while, the rescue plans began. Rescuers didn’t have to analyze much to conclude that they needed to drill a hole to get the job done. A lot of high-tech equipment was needed, including drilling equipment and a rescue capsule. Initially, rescuers prognosticated that they would free the thirty-three miners by November 2010. However, the hole was finished ahead of schedule and the last miner was out by October 13.11

In their efforts to get everyone out as efficiently as possible, rescuers decided to use three major drill machines: the STRATA 950 (Plan A), the T-130 (Plan B), and the petrol drilling machine RIG 421 (Plan C).12 The three drills were put to work, and the T-130 (Plan B) turned out to be the winner. Nevertheless, using the T-130 had many complications. For example, on September 22, one of the drill heads snapped and fell into the floor of the mine. However, the plan continued; and on October 6, the miners could hear the machine drilling over their heads. Three days later, the drill reached its goal.13

Mining in Chile has had its fair share of accidents. And, despite this accident, not much has been done to make sure that the Chilean workers are safe. Speaking about the San Jose mine, it was reported that it lacked many safety features that would have prevented the disaster that kept the thirty-three miners underground for so long. Given that mining is in such demand in Chile, many small-sized companies got into the industry without having the resources to ensure their workers’ safety. Even the refuge where the thirty-three miners survived didn’t have the necessary conditions to shelter them. It had no ventilation and the energy was cut off. Also, three deaths had occurred in the mine in previous years and many workers had been injured. Due to lack of security, the company owners had been involved in multiple lawsuits, including several from the thirty-three miners. It was later revealed that they had many infractions due to unsafe working conditions.14 Was this all San Esteban Mining Company’s fault? The public certainly thought so.

Moreover, the San Jose Mine isn’t the only mine that has had incidents in this country. In 1945, the world’s largest mining tragedy in the history of metal mining occurred in Chile. This horrendous accident was caused by an explosion and took the life of 355 workers. As could be expected, it exposed how unsafe the working environment in mines were; and it eventually led to the creation of the Department of Mine Safety, a department that introduced risk prevention and safety management to the industry.15

Even though Chile now has very strict safety standards, enforcement is still an issue. Accidents like the 1945 tragedy, the 2006 Copiapo accident, and the 2010 incident often occur because small and medium-sized mines don’t have the money to provide the necessary safety standards for their workers. Since the workforce needs jobs to make a living, many are forced to go into the mines and risk their lives everyday.

According to The Balance, the most common causes of mining accidents are methane explosions and blasting related incidents. Methane is found within the coal layers of most of the mines. Malfunction of mining equipment, or the lack of preparation to use it, can trigger this methane and initiate coal dust explosions. Explosions of this nature have trapped and killed many miners in history. Also, the improper use of explosives to break rocks inside the mines has caused several accidents. Unprepared workers often don’t know how to operate these explosives and they don’t even know how far they should stand at the moment of the explosion. These underground explosions can also cause earthquake-like events that lead to cave-ins. Consequently, it is safe to say that mining companies should not only make sure that their equipment is in good condition, but they should also invest in proper training for their workers.16

After 69 days of terror and hard work, the big day finally came. The last preparations for the rescue operation were being made and the miners were ready to be pulled out. They even helped out by blowing up the last part of the hole with dynamite. And while they were getting ready to go into the rescue capsule and see their families, the entire world was watching. After hearing the final review of the escape protocol, rescuer Manuel Gonzalez climbed into the Phoenix capsule and went down into the mine.17

Chilean president Sebastian Piñera with last miner rescued | By Hugo Infante/Government of Chile | Courtesy of Wikimedia Commons

At 11:37 pm, the Phoenix capsule finished descending and was received by the excited survivors. Florencio Avalos, the first miner to get rescued, got into the capsule and prepared to leave that nightmare behind. As he was pulled from the rescue capsule, his family, the rescuers, the whole nation of Chile, and the entire world celebrated. Despite a few issues with the cameras and a minor collapse during the extraction process, 24 hours later the “33 miners” were out of the mine and reunited with their families. Both the group of miners and the rescuers were received with chants and excitement. The catastrophe was over and one of the most amazing rescues in modern history concluded.18

The aftermath of the disaster was as expected. The miners were taken straight to the hospital, where they were treated for malnutrition and respiratory issues. Nonetheless, the doctors were amazed when they saw how healthy “The 33” were. They were visited by President Piñeda, who promised to make sure that the security measures in mines were going to be improved. Four days later, most of the miners were out of the hospital and back with their families for good. Even though they were physically okay, the psychological damage the disaster left was severe. The government of Chile continued to take care of the workers months after the disaster.19

This incredible story showed the best side of humanity. People from all over the world collaborated with money, machinery, knowledge, and time to make sure that those miners got to see the light of day again. The rescue was viewed by millions and “The 33” received love and support from every corner of the Earth. Even though the story had a happy ending, this was a very serious accident and it exposed how unsafe mining can be in Chile and around the world. There had been many other accidents in history with several fatalities. Thankfully, this particular disaster was resolved thanks to the hard work of thousands of individuals. This action of unity should never be forgotten.

  1. Roberto Ríos Seguel, Chile 33 : Memoirs a Rescuer (Santiago de Chile: RIL editores, 2012), 17.
  2. Live Science, August 2010, s.v. “Chile Mine Collapse: Facts About the Amazing Survival Story,” by Wynne Parry and Rachael Rettner.
  3. Roberto Ríos Seguel, Chile 33 : Memoirs a Rescuer (Santiago de Chile: RIL editores, 2012), 18.
  4. Roberto Ríos Seguel, Chile 33 : Memoirs a Rescuer (Santiago de Chile: RIL editores, 2012), 18-19.
  5. Britannica, October 2018, s.v. “Chile: Mineral resources, noncarboniferous,” by Paul W. Drake César N. Caviedes, John J. Johnson and Marcello A. Carmagnani.
  6. Business Insider, June 2017, s.v. “Here’s how copper riches helped shape Chile’s economic story,” by  Jeff Desjardins.
  7. Virginia Economic Development Partnership, “Mining Markey in Chile,” International Trade, (2015): 1.
  8. Virginia Economic Development Partnership, “Mining Markey in Chile,” International Trade, (2015): 5.
  9. Roberto Ríos Seguel, Chile 33 : Memoirs a Rescuer (Santiago de Chile: RIL editores, 2012), 19-20.
  10. Gary Jordan, “How NASA Helped ‘The 33’ Chilean Miners,”, (November 2015): 1.
  11. Barbara Fraser, “Chilean Miners See the Light at Last,” Lancet 376, 9750 (October 2010): 1379–1380.
  12. Roberto Ríos Seguel, Chile 33 : Memoirs a Rescuer (Santiago de Chile: RIL editores, 2012), 19.
  13. Jonathan Franklin, 33 Men: Inside the Miraculous Survival and Dramatic Rescue of the Chilean Miners (New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 2011), Chap 11.
  14. Pascale Bonnefoy, “Poor safety standards led to Chilean mine disaster,”, (August 2010): 1.
  15. Igor Solar, “Chile: Two mining accidents with significantly different outcomes,” Digital Journal, (October 2014): 1.
  16. Philippe Dozolme, “What Are the Most Common Mining Accidents?,” Small Business, (April 2018): 1.
  17. Jonathan Franklin, 33 Men : Inside the Miraculous Survival and Dramatic Rescue of the Chilean Miners (New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 2011), Chap 12.
  18. Jonathan Franklin, 33 Men: Inside the Miraculous Survival and Dramatic Rescue of the Chilean Miners (New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 2011), Chap 13.
  19. Jonathan Franklin, 33 Men: Inside the Miraculous Survival and Dramatic Rescue of the Chilean Miners (New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 2011), Chap 14.

Jose Fernandez

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Recent Comments


  • Francisco Cruzado

    I liked how the article took its time to be as well-rounded as possible and give the reader a solid context of the incident. I remember an uncle of mine telling me about the incident and explaining to me that such accidents were just the paroxism of many unjustices in the mining industry in Chile. I personally remember that the mining industry had the biggest rate of subcontracting, or external contracting, out of all the economic sectors in Chile. 6 out of 10 workers were employed in such a precarious situation around 2015, or thereabouts, which was astonishing for me. Despite all the underlying problematic, it certainly popped up in many Latin-American TVs and got all of us engaged in seeing how solidarity is inherently human

  • Analisa Cervantes

    I remember seeing the movie made about “The 33” a few years ago. Reading this article gives much better detail and clarification over the events that led to the collapse of the mine. The article also discusses more about the aftermath of The 33’s rescue. When the events took place I was too young to remember hearing this on the news.

  • Jose Maria Llano Aranalde

    I remember watching all of this on the news and wondering how the miners were able to get out. Really amazing to see all different countries come together to help get this people out. I was especially surprised to see that even NASA steped in and contributed. I can’t imagine how the miners felt being stuck down there. It must have been terrible not knowing all that was going on. However all of them must have been so relieved when they were able to leave and return to their families.

  • Cassandra Sanchez

    It must have been absolutely terrifying to have been trapped for such a long period of time. Mining is a very dangerous job no matter how much safety is put because you never truly know how the earth is going to react to this drilling. Although this was terrifying I find it impressive with how uniting it was, everyone working together to free the 33 miners. Nowadays it takes a lot to get everyone to work together so it is refreshing to read about all these different people working together to help people in need.

  • Jose Chaman

    I remember watching the rescue process on my TV. I was 8 years old, and I was completely wordless, anxious to see all of “The 33” back again to the surface. This article is really outstanding, and I totally agree with the author when he says that this was an event that united states and organizations. This demonstrates that we still are human beings and that our sense of community is still there.

  • Hector Membreno

    It is sad how in less wealthy countries there is not many laws protecting the working man such as the “white collar” law we have in the United Staes that allows workers to stop all work when they feel something they are asked to do is unsafe. But despite the tragedy something good did come out of this event. People from all over the world came together so save “The 33” it is one the greatest acts of humanity. Also due to this catastrophe the Department of Mine Safety was started to stop accidents like this to happen again.

  • Kenneth Gilley

    What an amazing story. It is wonderful to see how so many people from all over the world came together to make sure the miners got out safely. Of course, it was a terrible shame that this accident had to happen in the first place. At the same time, improving working conditions does have a cost. It is not cheap to provide training, better equipment, and so on. The workers end up paying for these improvements in the form of lower wages. If that is agreeable to them (it would be agreeable to me), then improved working conditions are great for everyone involved.

  • Mauro Bustamante

    Interesting the way they planned how to save all of them and it was frustrating when each day passed and all of them were still trapped inside getting out of resources. The first miner to get rescued, got into the capsule and prepared to leave that nightmare behind. As he was pulled from the rescue capsule, his family, the rescuers, the whole nation of Chile, and the entire world celebrated. This is a devastating moment, these men put their lives on the line for the job that some choose and love, but others are forced into doing just for income for their families, these are recognized for their bravery and it saddening to hear of this event.

  • Sebastian Azcui

    I perfectly remember this situation. I live in a South American country and hearing this story was really sad and all over the news. One of the miners that was trapped inside was Bolivian, so he was on the news all the time back at my home country. It was very interesting the way they planned how to save all of them and it was frustrating when each day passed and all of them were still trapped inside getting out of resources. The Phoenix was a miracle for real and watching the miners faces was heart-breaking.

  • Maria Garcia

    I can honestly recall this story going viral and thinking to myself how crazy and scary it must be to experience something like that. This article really pinpointed what all the 39 men experienced during their duration of being trapped. It was such a relief when they all got rescued, but really helped show that working conditions such as these, need to be improved in order to prevent cases such as this one.

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