According to historians, the Shang Dynasty in China lasted from 1766 to 1122 B.C.E., and it had a big impact on setting the fundamental characteristics of early Chinese society, which we know today thanks to the written records and material remains that they left after their dynasty came to an end.1 Immediately following the Shang Dynasty was the rule of the Zhou. Much of those records and remains have given us insight into the cultural features of Chinese society during the Shang Dynasty; however, methods of law, justice, and administration under the Shang rulers is not well known. The Zhou Dynasty has provided us better and clearer information regarding the way that Zhou rulers ran their society.2 One excellent example of Zhou Dynasty ruling practice is their ideological pronouncement known as the Mandate of Heaven.

The Mandate of Heaven was a set of principles that the Zhou dynasty outlined that would have a relevant influence on the way the Chinese thought about government and politics until the twentieth century.3 The Zhou rulers put forward the Mandate of Heaven idea as a way to display their theory of politics. This theory is interesting, and quite different from that of most ancient world dynastic rulers. The Zhou rulers used the Mandate of Heaven as their justification for their rule, and it served as proof of their theory that Heaven (Tian) had withdrawn the mandate to rule from the Shang dynasty and had bestowed it instead on the Zhou dynasty because of the misrule of the Shang rulers.4 Historians have found evidence that the Zhou dynasty’s overthrow of the Shang rulers was largely justified by the claim that they had received a mandate from Heaven to do so.5 Because the Zhou dynasty rested its justification for overthrowing the Shang rulers on this supposed mandate, that Mandate subsequently came to be seen as the primary justification for all new dynasties throughout China’s long history.

Illustration depicting the cyclical nature of the Mandate of Heaven | Courtesy of
Illustration depicting the cyclical nature of the Mandate of Heaven | Courtesy of

The major message of the Mandate of Heaven was one that explained the politics of the time; the concept behind the Mandate of Heaven was that political leaders were given their power by a divine Heaven, a divine consent without which a man could not be considered a legitimate ruler.6 This message is obviously very powerful, and upon closer examination of the mandate and its relationship to the Zhou dynasty, it becomes quite evident that the Zhou rulers used the mandate as a novel means to justify their overthrow of the previous rulers of China. The message outlined in the Mandate also served another purpose, as observed by historians: the mandate issued a message to the Chinese people about the importance of being a good ruler.7  Many believe that the mandate existed with the sole purpose of reminding the people in ancient China that the Zhou had been chosen by Heaven to be rulers because they were worthy of acting in the right way.8 In other words, the Zhou practiced what they preached; they told their people that Heaven believed them to be the most fit to rule China, and they proved that to be accurate by acting as good rulers, at least for a time.

The Mandate of Heaven can easily be seen as the most important political statement made by the Zhou dynasty because of its ability to justify their coming to power and the fact that the early Zhou leaders followed through on the claim.  Moreover, the Mandate of Heaven provided a certain view of Chinese history, that is, the view that Chinese history is cyclical. Once the Mandate of Heaven was first issued, it became a norm for each new dynasty to claim they had received the mandate, begin their rule by acting in the right way, but ultimately become complacent and fail as a dynasty. Overall, the mandate was an important idea to the people of ancient China who lived under the rule of the Zhou, or under the rule of all the subsequent dynasties that claimed to have been bestowed with the same Mandate of Heaven.

  1. Jerry H. Bentley, Herbert F. Ziegler, and Heather E. Streets-Salter, Traditons & Encounters: A Brief Global History From the Beginning to 1500, Fourth, vol. 1 (New York: McGraw-Hill Education, 2016), 55.
  2. Bentley, Ziegler, and Streets-Salter, Traditons & Encounters, 55.
  3. Bentley, Ziegler, and Streets-Salter, Traditons & Encounters, 55.
  4.  Dingxin Zhao, “The Mandate of Heaven and Performance Legitimation in Historical and Contemporary China,” American Behavioral Scientist 53, no. 3 (November 1, 2009): 419.
  5. Dingxin Zhao, “The Mandate of Heaven and Performance Legitimation in Historical and Contemporary China,” American Behavioral Scientist, 419.
  6. Bentley, Ziegler, and Streets-Salter, Traditons & Encounters, 55.
  7. Dingxin Zhao, “The Mandate of Heaven and Performance Legitimation in Historical and Contemporary China,”American Behavioral Scientist, 419-20.
  8. Dingxin Zhao, “The Mandate of Heaven and Performance Legitimation in Historical and Contemporary China,”American Behavioral Scientist, 419-20.

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38 Responses

  1. This article did an excellent job covering the history and importance of the Mandate of Heaven in Ancient China. It was interesting to learn just how accepted this system was by the Chinese people. Another interesting thing is how similar the Mandate of Heaven is to the Divine Right of kings in Christian Europe, as both claim that the current ruler has to be granted a right to rule by some kind of divine power.

  2. In this article, I think the image of the “Cyclic Nature of the Mandate of Heaven” was very effective. The author relied on the image for reference instead of explaining the complete cycle within the article. This allowed for an explanation of the history and how the political process was influenced during the different dynasties without being distracted by the cycle itself.

  3. This article did a good job of explaining the concept of the Mandate of Heaven the Ancient Chinese emperors used to maintain their rule. I never really understood that people just accepted this as the years went by. Like I know for the time it was probably to just stop rebellions and stuff like that but you would think as time passes people would realize that it doesn’t make sense. Great article though.

  4. Hi Victoria, I had never heard of the Mandate of Heaven before. It is not surprising that rulers were removed and others took power through an ideology that gave them divine permission. It reminds me of manifest destiny in the westward expansion of the United States. The same way The Mandate of Heaven came about and stuck with future people, so did manifest destiny, giving permission to expand. I really like that you recognize the cyclical nature of the mandate and how once one group used it, the next would also use it.

  5. This is the first time I hear about this subject, I find it very interesting to see that Chinese Dynasties were actually affected by this mandate, I also find it interesting how the majority of people believed in the divine entities therefore there was no objection to what the mandate said however as it says in this article that it helped spread in china the idea that the ruler was chosen by the divine entity due to his good actions therefore those rules kept those actions even after the power was granted to them.

  6. Its interesting how much Chinese history follows this theroy. You don’t often see that sort of thing in history. It seems this cycle is a very effective way to get the people on your side, having them believe that you were chosen to rule by higher powers sounds like something from a theocracy. It’s no wonder that Mao would adopt parts of this theroy to justify his own rule.

  7. god given right to rule is a common trend among early civilizations that is done to prevent criticism of the government. the mandate of heaven is a way of visualizing what they were told, and a funny part of this is that in order to prevent criticism it eventually cemented the idea that it was right to overthrow the government if it became tyrannical into the minds of it citizens.

  8. The mandate of heaven became an essential part of ancient Chinese culture, as it was their way of justifying why the current dynasty had the right to rule China. This was not unique to China we see very similar justifications in Europe where a ruler will say that their rule is decreed by God and the Pope. this is a very interesting connection between the two culture.

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