September 23, 2016
Orders were given and on a cold morning on February 14, 1929, five men sped down the streets of Chicago in a stolen police car to ambush a rival gang in the hopes of ending their rule and territory in Chicago. The hit was believed to be ordered by Chicago’s most notorious gangster, Al Capone.1 Capone had been running most of the Chicago crime scene by this time but rival gangs did step into his territory from time to time and one that continued to be a nuisance was the gang belonging to George “Bugs” Moran. Moran was despised in Chicago and it was believed that Capone thought that if he allowed his men to put an end to Moran, he would be doing his city a great service.2
It is believed that one of Al Capone’s closest men, Jack McGurn, known as “Machine Gun” McGurn to his fellow members, was the man who put the idea into Capone’s head to take out Moran and his gang. McGurn was a man who enjoyed displaying his riches and made his wealth well known to all those around him. Once Moran took notice of McGurn, he set the assassination of McGurn into play and ordered two of his best hit men, Pete and Frank Gusenberg, to take out McGurn. The Gusenberg brothers left McGurn for dead and thought they had succeeded in killing him, but unbeknownst to them, McGurn survived the brutal attack.3 It was at this time that McGurn knew he would have to retaliate and he would not just take down the Gusenberg brothers, but the entire Moran gang.
After getting approval from Capone, the hit was strategically planned and carried out by McGurn. McGurn spent weeks following Moran and his men, watching every move they made to plan out his attack.4 McGurn would need a clever plan to get a man like Moran alone long enough to kill him. After tailing the Moran gang for some time, he learned that they frequented a small, dimly lit garage on North Clark Street. It was here that Moran accepted deliveries and distributed the alcohol he purchased for his bootlegging business.5 It was also the perfect spot to carry out McGurn’s gruesome plan.
McGurn knew what he needed to do to get the job finished. He placed a call that would allow him to get Moran and his men alone in the garage so that McGurn’s team would be able get in and out without being noticed. On February 13th Moran received word that a boat carrying a shipment of high quality whiskey had been raided on its way from Canada to Detroit, and the men who had taken the cargo were looking to unload it at a very reasonable price. Moran jumped at the offer and agreed to meet the men in his garage the following morning at 10:30AM. 6 Up to this point, Jack McGurn’s plan was going just as he had hoped. He rallied his men and had them ready to take down the man he had had his eye on ever since his attempted assassination on McGurn, George “Bugs” Moran.
The next morning seven of Moran’s men, who included, Pete and Frank Gusenberg, John May, Albert R. Weinshank, James Clark, Adam Heyer, and Dr.Reinhart H. Schwimmer entered the garage at 2122 North Clark Street.7 Two men serving as lookouts for McGurn quickly alerted him that the men had entered the garage and McGurn and his men sprang into action. McGurn’s team consisted of, Fred Burke, John Scalise, James Ray and Joseph Lolodro and McGurn himself.8 Three of the men disguised themselves as police officers and all five piled into a stolen police car, sped down the icy streets of Chicago and into the small garage. They exited the car and demanded the seven men put their hands up and line up against the wall. Moran’s men thought they had been caught in a Prohibition raid and cooperated with the “police officers.” Despite being known as the gangland murder capital, what happened next would shock the city of Chicago.9 Carrying two Tommy guns and two twelve gauge shotguns, McGurn’s men opened fire on their victims, spraying them with bullets, the entire job lasting only two minutes.10 The men fell to the ground, their blood covering the floor of the garage in a thick layer. When the job was complete, the men walked out of the garage in such a manner as to make onlookers believe they were being arrested. The “police officers” escorted the “criminals” to the car, locked them in, then entered the car themselves and drove off.11
Saint Valentine’s Day Massacre
The flow of the article was really well put together. I liked how it started with broad setting- Al Capone’s gang, then narrowed on one specific member and his plot to kill Maron, then leading to the aftermath and how he was able to get away with murder. I also found it interesting how well the plan went. It was a pretty genius idea to have some of McGurn’s men dress up as cops. Your sources were nice, and I like how you included primary sources for your images. It would be interesting to see what other primary sources are available.